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A member of Gatehouse Green Learning Trust


'Reading is the gateway skill that makes all other learning possible". Barack Obama


Our intention is to enable children to become confident and fluent readers through giving meaning to written symbols. 


Phonics is taught every morning in EYFS and Key Stage 1; in Year 2 Phonics has a Spelling focus. Phonics is regularly assessed, observed and adjusted to fit the needs of the children. The books pupils read in Reception, and Year 1 are linked to sounds they are learning and those they need to revise and practice.

Here at Ashton Vale, we teach phonics through Letters and Sounds.  ?Letters and Sounds is a national, systematic approach for teaching children to read using phonics. It is split into six phases, from starting to learn about sounds in reception to becoming fluent readers.
The phonic approach encourages us to directly link letters (graphemes) to sounds (phonemes), and to teach children pure sounds like ahbk when encountering the alphabet (instead of letter names). So, children learn how to put sounds represented by letters or letter groups (like ch or igh) together to read words in a more straightforward way.
We use the familiar resources from Ruth Miskin’s Read Write Inc. scheme to support our phonics teaching and to help form letters correctly.

The information below outlines the letter-sound correspondences children will learn in different phases of Letters and sounds. There are a few "tricky words" introduced at each phase. These words are common and useful for early reading and writing, but children won’t be able to decode them following the phonic rules taught up to that point. You can help your child learn them by reading aloud together.
Phase 1 Letters and Sounds
Phase 1 supports children's developing speaking and listening skills and linking of sounds and letters. Activities are divided into seven groups:
  • Environmental sounds
  • Instrumental sounds
  • Body percussion
  • Rhythm and rhyme
  • Alliteration
  • Voice sounds
  • Oral blending and segmenting.

Phase 2 Letters and Sounds
Phase 2 introduces simple letter-sound correspondences. As each set of letters is introduced, children are encouraged to use their new knowledge to sound out and blend words. For example, they will learn to blend the sounds s-a-t to make the word sat.
Set 1:
at, a, sat, pat, tap, sap, as

Set 2:
i as in it, is, sit, pit, tip
n as in an, in, nip, pan, nap
m as in am, man, mat, map, Tim
d as in dad, and, sad, dim, Sid

Set 3:
g as in tag, gag, sag, gas, pig
o as in got, on, not, top, dog
c as in can, cot, cop, cap, cod
k as in kid, kit, Kim, Ken

Set 4:
ck as in kick, sack, dock, sick, pocket
e as in get, pet, ten, net, pen
u as in up, mum, run, mug, cup
r as in rip, ram, rat, rocket, carrot
Set 5:
h as in had, him, his, hot, hut
b as in but, big, back, bed, bus
fff as in of, if, off, fit, fog, puff
lll as in let, leg, lot, bell, doll
ss as in less, hiss, mass, mess, boss

Phase 2 tricky words the, to, no, go, I, into

Phase 3 Letters and Sounds
In Phase 3 children build on the letter-sound correspondences learned in Phase 2. They learn consonant digraphs (sounds made up of two letters together such as ‘ch’ or ‘ll’) and long vowel sounds (such as 'igh' or 'ai').
Set 6:
j as in jet, jam, jog, Jan
v as in van, vet, velvet
w as in wig, will, web
x as in fox, box, six

Set 7:
y as in yes, yet, yell
z as in zip, zig-zag
zz as in buzz, jazz
qu as in quit, quick, liquid

Consonant digraphs:
ch as in chip, chat, rich
sh as in shop, shed, fish
th as in thin, moth, that
ng as in ring, thing, song

Vowel digraphs and trigraphs
ai as in rain, tail, aim
ee as in bee, leek, see
igh as in high, sigh, might
oa as in boat, toad, foal
oo as in boot, food, moon
oo as in book, wood, foot
ar as in park, art, car
or as in for, torn, fork
ur as in hurt, fur, surf
ow as in cow, owl, town
oi as in coin, boil, oil
ear as in dear, shear, year
air as in fair, pair, hair
ure as in sure, pure, manure
er as in dinner, summer, letter

Phase 3 tricky words as in he, she, we, me, be, was, you, they, all, are, my, her

Phase 4 Letters and Sounds

Children will consolidate their knowledge during this phase and they will learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, for example trap, strong, milk and crept.

Phase 4 tricky words said, have, like, so, do, some, come, were, there, little, one, when, out, what

Phase 5 Letters and Sounds

Children will learn some new graphemes for reading. They will also be taught alternative pronunciations for known graphemes. For example, they have already learned ow as in cow and will now learn ow as in blow.
In addition, they will learn alternative spellings for known phonemes. For example, the sound /igh/ has been learned as the grapheme igh as in night, but can also be spelled yie and i-e.

New graphemes for reading:
ay as in day, play, crayon
ou as in cloud, sound, about
ie as in pie, tie, cried
ea as in sea, meat, read
oy as in toy, enjoy, boy
ir as in bird, shirt, first
ue as in blue, true, glue
aw as in paw, claw, yawn
wh as in wheel, whisper, when
ph as in photo, dolphin, alphabet
ew as in new, crew, flew
oe as in toe, foe, tomatoes
au as in Paul, launch, haul
a-e as in make, game, snake
e-e as in these, Eve, extreme
i-e as in like, time, slide
o-e as in home, bone, pole
u-e as in rule, June, flute

Phase 5 tricky words oh, their, people, Mr, Mrs, looked, called, asked, could

Phase 6 Letters and Sounds

In Phase 6 children will read with increasing fluency. They will have learned most of the common letter-sound correspondences and can read familiar words automatically without needing to sound out and blend. Children will work on spelling, including prefixes and suffixes, doubling and dropping letters, and so on.



Children will leave KS1 able to decode and understand age appropriate books. They will be ready to tackle the reading curriculum of KS2. Most importantly they will be able to decode the words around them and take pleasure in reading and understanding a range of books.



Additional Support for Parents:

Careful pronunciation of the sounds is really important. It will help your child to hear each sound in a word much more easily. This will then help them to read and write that word more accurately. 

Have a look at this video to help you pronounce each sound



Our children enjoy learning the sounds and letter formation using the pictures and rhymes in the Read Write Inc scheme.